Infrared Barrier Circuit - How to make an Infrared Barrier
How to make an Infrared Beam Barrier
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Welcome in this information page of Mppt Solar. On this page we will teach you how to build a simple infrared barrier and see what happens when an object passes through the beam of the barrier. The barrier will be constituted by an emitting diode initialed TSAL6200 (emission maximum at a wavelength 940 nanometers), by a receiver diode initialed BPW41 (maximum sensitivity around 940 nanometers) and a few other electronic components (the two resistors, a signaling LED the interruption of the infrared barrier, and an npn transistor).
The infrared beams are electromagnetic waves in all respects identical to those that make up light, from which they differ only for the fact of having a lower frequency. Therefore, like light, are limited in scope and can not overcome the obstacles, from which they are reflected. For this their properties are used to make the barriers infrared used in alarm devices. These are composed of an emitting diode and a receiver diode both infrared, spaced a few feet and oriented so that in normal conditions the beam of invisible rays, emitted by the issuer, arrives on the receiver diode. As soon as any body is to interrupt the beam, the receiver diode, sensing the lack of radiation, generates an alarm signal that warns of the presence of extraneous.
The emitting diode. An infrared emitting diode is not much different from a common LED diode is used for signaling (LED's used to power the led lighting using a different technology). The difference is given only by the substances with which it is realized the doping of the junction, which are designed so as to ensure that when it is applied between the anode and the cathode of the diode a voltage higher than its threshold voltage, it, rather than emitting light as a normal diode LED emits radiation mainly in the infrared range. The emitting diode has an emission curve of infrared radiation such as that represented in the figure below, which presents the maximum emission at a given wavelength. In the case of the diode TSAL6200 that we are going to use in our experiments, the emission maximum is at a wavelength of 940 nanometers. The graph below, taken from the datasheet, shows the trend of the radiant power generated by the diode issuer TSAL6200 in a range of wavelength between 890 and 990 nanometers. The peak occurs at 940 nm.
The receiver diode. The infrared receiver diode is a diode that incorporates into the container an IR filter, which has the function to leave arrive on the junction only the infrared radiation. When the diode is exposed to infrared radiation, it generates a voltage on the junction, the value of which depends on the intensity of the radiation received. Even the receiver diode has a sensitivity curve as a function of wavelength. The diode BPW41 presents a curve ranging from 800 nanometers to 1150 nanometers, with maximum sensitivity around 950 nanometers. When combining an emitting diode and a receiver, for best operation, it is good to verify that they both have the peak of maximum efficiency at the same wavelength or a wavelength very close. The curve below, taken from the datasheet, indicates how the sensitivity of the receiver diode BPW41 to vary the wavelength of the incident radiation. As you can see, the maximum sensitivity is achieved at 950 nm.
Infrared barrier. Now we will use the diode ir TSAL6200 issuer and the receiver diode ir BPW41 to implement the transmission and reception of infrared light through the creation of a simple infrared barrier. The infrared emitting diode, signed DTX1, is connected via a resistor 330 ohm power supply. The issuer circuit is formed by the diode issuer TSAL6200 to which is applied a voltage of +15 V via the resistor R1. In this way the diode emits the maximum intensity of infrared radiation that is detected by the receiver diode BPW41 placed at a distance of about 11-12cm. The emitting diode and the diode receiver are aligned, so as to form a real barrier. The infrared radiation that arrives on the receiver diode on its junction causes a current, which drives the base of the transistor TR1 keeping it in conduction.
Thus the diode DL1 is lit. As soon as something passes through the barrier, the infrared beam is interrupted and the receiver diode no longer circulates current, In this way, the base current is canceled and the transistor TR1 is brought into interdiction, turning off the diode DL1.
Despite their similarity with light waves, it is not said that the materials which are opaque to light behave in the same way with the infrared rays. For example, some types of plastic and plexiglass in dark color are perfectly transparent to this radiation, as you can easily verify. And what about the smoke? Now that you have built your fence, you can also enjoy observing how they behave different materials, which are those that allow themselves to be more easily cross the infrared beams and which oppose their passage. So you can find some interesting differences that characterize these invisible radiation.
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